Wednesday, May 18, 2016

Under Siege—Horace Mann’s Public Education Dream

Public Education is under concerted attack on multiple fronts across the United States.  Tea Baggers, Libertarians, religious zealots, money hungry sharpies hustling for-profit schools, old fashion racists and xenophobes, Republican politicians on the make, climate change deniers and the dinosaurs-just-missed-the-Arc crowd, anti-labor crusaders, and the usual I-don’t-wanna-pay-no-stinkin’-taxes crowd combine on wave after wave of attacks on public education and funding on the Federal, state, and local levels.
The attacks come in many forms—promotion of alleged school choice; slashing budgets; demonizing teachers; attacking collective bargaining rights, benefits, and pensions; attacking affirmative action and continued desegregation efforts; attempting to exclude children of undocumented immigrants; banning bi-lingual education; promoting aggressive zero tolerance discipline policies that result in wide-spread suspensions, expulsions, and the school to prison pipe linedismantling special services for the disabled and at-risk students;  micro-managing texts and curricula to exclude certain scientific knowledge and often to encourage out-right lies about evolution, climate change, sexuality, and history.
The attack on public education is not just a far right phenomena.  Leading the charge for Charter Schools, dis-empowering parents at public schools,  and thinly veiled union busting, have been many alleged Democratic educational reformers and politicians eager to get in on the gravy train from the well funded neo-liberal education privitizers and the corporations licking their chops at skimming quick and easy cash from for-profit school.  New York Governor Andrew Cuomo, former Chicago school honcho and Obama administration Education Secretary Arne Duncan are just some of the Democrats pushing Charter Schools, which have no-where lived up to the promices made for them while starving remaining public schools.
 The motivations and tactics of the various players may vary.  But they are united in a single aimdiscredit public education and drive as many students as possible out of the system leaving behind only the poorest who have no other alternatives.  That generally means minorities and other despised populations.  With upper and middle class students stripped away, support for public education will evaporate, funding will further whither until the remnant collapses.
The very wealthy will do what they have always done—provide lavish private education with the best available teachers, equipment, and facilities.  Their children will get a full education—including the scientific knowledge that religious zealots and certain business interests want to deny the rest of the population.  Their children will be able to seamlessly maintain their position of privilege and dominance.
The dwindling middle class will be driven to charter, parochial, or for-profit private academies. Catholic and so-called Christian schools are already well established over much of the country and with potential new pools of students can be established everywhere
True, Catholic parochial school systems have been under pressure, particularly in older urban areas due to out-migration or white flight to the suburbs, increased costs and high tuitions as they have been forced to rely more on lay teachers than religious orders, and on the continuing fallout from waves of sexual abuse scandals.  But many right wing Catholic intellectuals believe that a collapse of the public school system would reverse those losses and accelerate growth in suburban and other areas which were previously underserved by a Catholic education.  

Christian Academies have already supplanted public schools for many middle and upper class children, expecially Whites, across the South leaving behind cash starved public schools jammed with Blacks, Latino and immigrant children, and poor whites.

Meanwhile Christian Academies have already largely supplanted public schools for white students in many areas across the South, effectively re-establishing segregation.  Religious conservatives dream of extending that reach North and West. 
Ideologically driven secular private schools and for-profit operations will be willing to pedal approved versions of the “truth.”  Moderate and liberal families of modest means have few such options.  They will either have to gin up whole new school systems, abandon public education for isolating home schooling as many have already done, or send their children to the traps laid for them.  If they do manage to establish their own schools, look for state and local authorities in the hands of right wing zealots to try to force their preferred curriculum on them.  For these folks choice always means their choice.
Of course, folks are awakening to all of this.  It is not too late to head off catastrophe.  
But maybe it would be good to look back at the origins of the free public education system that empowered generations

Horace Mann, father of American compulsory education and of free public school systems/

On May 18, 1852 Massachusetts became the first state to require education for all children.
Although the Puritans in 1647 established rules that every town maintain a school and levying  fines on parents who failed to enroll children, the law was never really enforced and the Bay State, like others, came to rely on a patchwork of private academies and tutors to serve the needs of its children.  With a high social value placed on reading, writing, and ability to do basic ciphers Massachusetts still had the highest literacy rate among the states. 
But the influx of poor, largely Irish and Catholic immigrants in the 1840’s alarmed authorities in two ways.  First, they feared that an ignorant rabble would be a threat to domestic tranquility and republican virtue.  Second, they feared the parochial schools being established by Catholics would entrench an alien religion in their midst.  
Unitarian social reformer Horace Mann, who was made the first Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education in 1837, retired from a successful political career and dedicated himself to working tirelessly to establish a Common School system.  He visited every existing school in the state, established a Normal School system for the training of teachers, instituted reforms where he could, opposed corporal punishment, and constantly wrote and lectured on the need for compulsory public education
In his magazine The Common School Journal he laid out six principlesthat the public should no longer remain ignorant; that such education should be paid for, controlled, and sustained by the public; that education best be provided in schools that embrace children from a variety of backgrounds;  that education must be non-sectarian; that students should be taught by the spirit, methods, and discipline of a free society; and that instruction be provided by well-trained, professional teachers
In 1843 Mann toured Europe at his own expense to inspect educational developments there.  He became enthusiastic for the Prussian System of mandatory public education. 
Although Mann was elected to Congress, taking the seat vacated by the death of John Quincy Adams in 1848, he remained a steadfast booster of public education.  Despite being narrowly defeated for Governor in 1852, Mann was able to finally see his Common School program adopted by the Commonwealth.  
He then left to assume the presidency of Antioch College in Ohio, where he served until his death in 1859. 
Mann did live to see his idea spreadNew York adopted the system in 1854 and it spread slowly over Northern, Mid Western, and Western states.  Resistance was hardest in the South which argued that children were necessary for labor on the farm, and later in the growing textile industry.  
After the Civil War Southern states were also reluctant to adopt a system that would require them to educate Black children
None the less, by 1919 all states had adopted compulsory education rules. 
The new public education systems never did completely supplant either Catholic parochial schools or private academies. Public schools in the 19th Century often followed Mann’s dream of being “non-sectarian” only in that they were not Catholic.  They often acted as a broad transmitter of the dominant Protestant culture which was enshrined in staple texts like McGuffey’s Readers and in regular prayer
The tensions between these public and private systems are still being played out in controversies over school funding and the right wing ideological movement to replace government schools. If Mann failed to establish universal public education, at least he did succeed in compulsory education laws required that all children get some form of instruction.  That made the United States by the mid 20th Century the most universally literate society the world had ever known.
Alas, now many nations, including some considered to be in the Third World have now surpassed the United States in literacy, in no small measure because of the concerted attacks on public education.  And this country now lags virtually every developed country in achievements in math, science, and foreign languages for its public school students and in graduation rates from high school.  As a result this country is rapidly falling behind and losing its world dominance.  

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