|Phineas T. Barnum's Roman Hippodrome. Note tent covering the open roof.
When William Kissam Vanderbilt finally got control of a chunk of grandpa Cornelius Vanderbilt's estate in 1879, he knew just what he wanted to do with one of the assets. The old Commodore owned the property where a half-derelict hulk of a building sat on prime Manhattan real estate.
The large structure had originally been the New York and Harlem Railroad depot, which the Commodore bought and incorporated into what became the New York Central. In 1871 station operations moved to the shiny new Grand Central Depot. Phineus T. Barnum then stepped in and leased the building. He took the roof off, gutted it, and converted it into an oval arena 270 feet long, with tiers of seats and benches. It was rechristened first as the Great Roman Hippodrome then even more grandly Barnum's Monster Classical and Geological Hippodrome. The bombastic showman experienced great success staging his famous circus and other spectacular exhibitions including chariot racing there.
In 1876 Barnum gave up his lease to concentrate on his increasingly lucrative touring circus. Irish born band leader Patrick Gilmore, composer of When Johnny Comes Marching Home and other famous marches, then took over the building re-dubbing it Gilmore's Garden. When he was not presenting his own concerts there, Gilmore, rented the space to promoters of flower shows, beauty contests, temperance and revival meetings, walking marathons. and in 1877 the first Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show then called the NewYork Bench Show. He also presented boxing matches at a time when prize fights were illegal in the Empire State by passing them off as exhibitions and even as demonstrations accompanying lectures on the manly arts of self-defense.
The promoter of the Dog Show briefly took over the building but kept Gilmore's name on it. He added genteel tennis matches and installed an ice skating rink for use during the frigid winter months.
|Vanderbilt's renovated and renamed Madison Square Garden.
Vanderbilt booked boxing exhibitions featuring Police Gazzette heroes like Heavyweight Champion John L. Sulivan. Other sports attractions presented to crowds of up to 10,000 patrons included track and field meets and bicycle racing--maybe the most popular spectator sport in the country--on his specially built banked velodrome track. The National Horse Show joined the dog show as an annual attraction and Barnum came back to exhibit his prize elephant Jumbo. Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West Show became a national sensation there during a long run in 1886. The place also hosted national conventions of the Elks and other organizations.
The old building established itself as the Big Apple's prime multi-purpose venue for big events. But it was in deteriorating condition and uncomfortable or unusable much of the year--stiffing hot in the summer and freezing cold and dark during the long winter months. Harper's Weekly described it as a "patched-up grumy, drafty combustible, old shell."
After 11 years Vanderbilt grew tired of his toy while civic leaders clamored for its replacement, an expensive project he had no interest in underwriting. Enter a consortium the richest men in the city and country--J.P. Morgan, Andrew Carnagie, William Waldorf Astor, and others plus showman Barnum--who bought the building and land, tore it down, and erected an impressive replacement also called Madison Square Garden.
|Stanford White met a bad end at the roof top restaurant of Madison Square Garden which he designed,
The second Garden became the annual home for the touring Barnum and Ringling Brothers circuses and eventually their combined show. It continued to be the venue of choice for top prize fights and in 1902 and '03 the indoor games of the professional World Series of Football. It also hosted important national events like the 1924 Democratic National Convention which nominated John W. Davis after 103 ballots.
Despite the cultural importance of the building, it was not a financial success and in 1925 the mortgage holder, New York Life Insurance, foreclosed, tore it down. then erected their skyscraper headquarters on the site.
A third Madison Square Garden was built away from Madison Square on Eighth Avenue between 49th and 50th Streets where trolly barns once stood. The new structure was owned by Tex Rickard whose New York Rangers of the National Hockey League (NHL)made it home from 1926.
Basketball was represented in a series of collegiate double headers every week featuring top local and national teams as well as the National Invitation Tournament (NIT) beginning in 1938 and hosted seven NCAA Men's Basketball Championship finals between 1943 and 1950. The New York Nicks of the National Basketball Association (NBA) began their residency in 1949.
Although this incarnation did not host any national political conventions, Franklin Roosevelt used it to stir up support for his first Presidential campaign with a mammoth rally in 1932. Thirty years later the Garden was packed for a birthday celebration for John F. Kennedy at which Marylin Monroe famously crooned him "Happy Birthday, Mr. President" in a slinky silver sequined gown that she had to be sewn into.
|A large portrait of George Washington loomed over a huge German American Bund pro-Nazi rally at the Garden in 1939.
Billy Graham conducted a 16 week revival Crusade there in 1957.
In the 1960's ownership and management was taken over by the new Madison Square Garden Company under the leadership of impresario Irving Feld of Ringling Bros. The company laid plans for yet another incarnation, this time built over Pennsylvania Station between Seventh and Eighth Avenues from 31st to 33rd Streets. After the new building was opened in 1968, the old Garden III was torn down. The original plan was to erect a new world's tallest building at the old site but that was squelched by massive neighborhood opposition resulting in strict height limits for new construction in the area. It remained under-used as a parking lot until 1989 when the Worldwide Plaza opened on the site.
|Today's Madison Square Garden IV is round.
The Garden was also the launching pad for the re-introduction of professional wrestling into mainstream pop culture as the venue for the inaugural Wrestlemania presented by the World Wrestling Federation (WWF) in 1985 and many subsequent marquee events.
The Democrats held their convention at the Garden in 1976, 1980, and 1992.
Despite a billion dollar renovation in 2011-'13, the Garden lost long time tenants the Ringling Bros. Circus and Disney on Ice to the new Barclays Center in Brooklyn.
The City of New York wants to expand Penn Station underneath the Garden which would require that it be torn down and relocated. This has been a major issue in the city for years with the MSG company resisting the move. In 2013 they were granted a ten year extension of their air rights permit after which time they will either have to move or begin a new, and risky, application for another extension. In all likelihood by the end of the permit the Garden will be forced to relocate two blocks away just south of the James Farley Post Office.
Madison Square Garden V is in the cards.