Tuesday, May 29, 2012

If the Question Ever Pops Up You’ll Know About Toast

An early single slice Toastmaster.

It took a few years, but American breakfast tables were on their way to being revolutionized when Charles P. Strite filed his application for a patent on the electric pop-up toaster on May 29, 1919.  

Toasting bread to preserve it by removing moisture dated back to Roman times.  In the 19th Century various devices were invented to hold slices of bread over an open flame for toasting.  But it was a tricky process requiring diligence and constant attention and a lot of bread simply went up in flames.  

In the 1890’s inventors in England and the United States patented similar devices that toasted bread over heated electrical wires one side at a time.  The devices were crude, expensive, and dangerous since the glowing filaments were openly exposed.  They also frequently failed or burst into flame because the temperature to toast bread—better than 350º Fahrenheit—caused filaments in the air to melt or ignited near-by combustibles.  

The discovery of a strong nickel-chromium alloy by Albert Marsh made modern electrical toasters practical. George Schneider of the American Electrical Heater Company soon patented a toaster using Marsh’s alloy.  There was a race among dozens of companies to produce practical toasters.  

In 1909 the General Electrical Company’s Frank Shailor patented what would become the first really successful devise, the D-12 Toaster. In 1914 Lloyd and Hazel Copeman perfected a toaster that could “flip” the bread to face the heating filaments without having to touch it by hand.  Competing companies had to either license the Copeman patents for the Automatic Toaster—as did Westinghouse—or find new ways to expose both sides to heat.  

Dozens of different devices were introduced, but none were really satisfactory until Strite, a master mechanic at a Stillwater, Minnesota plant got tired of burnt toast in the company cafeteria.  Tinkering away, he used a mechanical timer and springs to create a toaster that would “pop-up” a slice when it reached the correct heat to brown the bread.  He was granted his patent in 1921 and founded the Waters-Genter Company to manufacture and market the toasters to restaurants.  

Originally assembled by hand, they were far too expensive for home use.  The first 100 were sold to the Childs restaurant chain.  By 1926 the company improved production techniques and redesigned the machine for home use under the brand name Toastmaster.  After 1938 he chrome sides of the toasters were etched with a triple loop logo meant to resemble the heating filaments inside.  The Edison Company eventually absorbed the Toastmaster brand.  Through various owners the name and basic design have continued to be marketed to this day.  

Toastmaster toasters and other appliances were manufactured in a plant in Algonquin, Illinois in McHenry County until the 1990’s.  Now all products are produced offshore, mostly in China.

Although popular, it took another invention to really send sales through the roof and make the toaster a center piece of every home kitchen. 

Bread was sold through local bakeries in whole loaves.  It had to be hand sliced at home to be put in the toaster.  As anyone who has ever tried it can attest, it takes a very sharp knife and some skill to slice white bread to a proper thickness without either mashing the loaf or sawing it to crumbs.  Which is why prior to 1930 most people probably had biscuits or cornbread with breakfast than toast.  But in 1928 Otto Frederick Rohwedder patented an automatic bread slicing machine that also wrapped and sealed the sliced loaf in protective waxed paper. 

In 1930 the Continental Baking Company introduced Wonder Bread and within just three years pre-sliced bread outsold whole loaves across the country.  With perfectly formed slices, sales of Toastmaster toasters skyrocketed as well.  

The rest, as they say is history.  Pass the butter and jam please.

No comments:

Post a Comment