Iceland, how we love you! Although you missed the news if you relied on
mainstream media, in 2015 Iceland
sent 26 of its once powerful bankers to prison for their part in the schemes that led up to the 2008 economic crisis which nearly destroyed the economy. No country fell harder than Iceland in the worldwide crisis. But almost alone it did not react by scrambling
to bail out the banks whose reckless conduct brought on the
disaster. Instead, the banks were allowed
to fail, and new ones were created to serve the domestic economy. Stockholders
and foreign depositors attracted
by the old banks’ debt-driven
swashbuckling in world financial
markets were allowed to eat their
losses while the new state owned
banks protected and guaranteed
Icelandic depositors and forgave much
mortgage debt. The policy drew howls of protest from the world banking establishment and not a few dire threats. As a result, the country saw an arduous and difficult recovery, but one that has outpaced the somewhat stagnant
recoveries of the U.S.
of the credit for the successful turn-around went to the government of Social Democratic Alliance Prime Minister Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir
which came to power after weeks of outraged street demonstrations forced the resignation Geir Hilmar Haarde, a backer of the banking deregulation policy that led to
the crisis. Haarde was later brought to trial himself for his part the collapse and convicted on one relatively
minor count for essentially negligence.
was a former trade union activist and
the first openly lesbian head of
government in the world. The former flight attendant began her political career with her election to
the Althing—parliament—in 1978. To get there she was a beneficiary of one of the most unique,
powerful, and successful protest movement in world
was called, with typical Icelandic understatement, the Women’s Day Off. In reality it was a hugely successful one day general strike by women that
was embraced by female members of
all political parties, trade unions,
and professional associations in protest to the significant wage gap between the genders, barriers to
advancement, and the lack of support services like childcare.
idea originated with the Red Stockings,
a radical women’s movement founded
in 1970 during the international surge of militant
feminism. It took a while for the
idea to take hold. Some women were initially put off by the rhetoric and confrontational style of the militants,
but it began to gain momentum within the trade unions where women had been
fighting for equal pay for some time.
Leadership of the movement to call a strike broadened and the new name
of Women’s Day Off was more acceptable
to some middle class and professional women than general strike.
date was set. No one was entirely sure
what to expect or how successful it would be.
Many thought it would be largely confined to labor movement women, students, and those radical feminists. A turn out of a few thousand to a scheduled Reykjavik rally and a walk-out of maybe
half the women in the country would have been considered a great victory. But the call
not only included employed women,
but homemakers and mothers resentful that work was not respected or compensated and fed up, like women everywhere, with the failure
of the men in their lives to share domestic responsibilities.
the weeks and days leading to the event an excited chatter spread across the country.
Women were asking each other, are you doing it? Conversations swirled around workplaces, schools, and among generations of family members. Many women
were unsure of what they would do right up to the last moment. But in the infectious joy empowerment doubters and wafflers gleefully joined their sisters.
has been estimated that 95% of all Icelandic women participated in the Day Off,
a rate of participation unmatched by
any general strike in history. Forty-eight
years ago, today on October 24, 1975 25,000 women gathered in Reykjavik’s
central square for a rally—that
alone was 10% of the total Icelandic population
of 250,000. For comparison, a gathering
of 10% of the current U.S. population would be more than 33 million
people. Rallies were also held in twenty
other Icelandic cities and towns.
universal was the strike? Few
businesses had any female employees report to work, including managers. Many had to close entirely for the
day, as did schools without teachers, and many government agencies. Those
that remained open had to cope with their male workers bringing
their children with them to work
because women refused to do any childcare, house cleaning, or cooking
that day or had male workers who had to stay home to take care of the children.
On Icelandic television and radio broadcasts covering the Day Off
noisy children could be heard in the background—and occasionally glimpsed
running through the set.
the Reykjavik rally women of all ages and social classes mingled and embraced
one another. They heard a parade of speakers punctuated
with singing and chants. Among the speakers who moved the crowd
was Adalheidur Bjarnfredsdottir representing
Sokn, the union of the cleaners and other the lowest paid
women in Iceland. With no public speaking experience she roused
the crowd, “Men have governed the world since time immemorial and what has the world been like?” She described a world soaked in blood, polluted, and exploited to the point of ruin. Surely women could do
its size and militancy, the strike and the nation-wide rallies were completely
peaceful. The authorities made no effort to stop or ban it,
and the police stood to the side
with nothing to do.
women also recall the general lack of attack by men. There was plenty of skepticism and puzzlement,
but no counterdemonstrations, few displays of anger,
and retribution on the job or
even docking pay for the time off
was rare. Many men expressed sympathy,
and others were enlightened by experiencing the double burden of paid employment and childcare. Some attitudes were genuinely changed. But while women look back on the day with
pride and enthusiasm, many men ruefully recall what they came to call as The Long Friday.
if by magic at the stroke of midnight women took up their
work again. Those who were scheduled for
overnight shifts came quietly back
to work. The women at the nation’s
largest newspaper, who represented more than 60% of the reporters and editors returned
to their desks and worked to get out
a shortened 16 page Saturday edition containing nothing but news of the strike.
many mass protests, the Women’s Day Off produced tangible results as well as facilitating a paradigm shift in Icelandic society and culture. In 1976 Iceland formed the Gender Equality Council and passed the Gender Equality Act, which outlawed gender discrimination in
workplaces and schools. Other reforms,
including childcare provisions and paternal leave for parents of both
sexes followed. At the time of the
strike women had held the franchise to
vote since 1915 but in 1975 only three were sitting in the Althing, 5% of
the total membership which lagged well behind other Scandinavian countries which averaged 15% female representation in
their parliaments. Subsequently many
participants in the strike were moved to run for office and a movement to empower
female candidates was embraced by most parties. Within the first decade the percentage of
female elected officials at all levels skyrocketed.
Vigdis Finnbogadóttur, first woman President of Iceland.
included the election of Vigdis Finnbogadottir, a divorced single mother as President in 1980. She became the first elected woman head of state in the world. She was reelected
three more times and held office for 16 years, longer than any other female
head of state.
to say all was perfect. In 2005 on the
30th anniversary of the Day Off the gap between male and female wages had slipped
back and women were making only 64% of men.
A new strike was called and the issue returned to the forefront of national attention
with new reforms following.
despite setbacks due to the near economic collapse, Iceland may be the best country in the world for
women. The wage gap has not been erased, but it is the lowest
in the world. The country has the
highest percentage of female employment in the world. Men and women are employed at nearly
identical rates, but women represent a majority of skilled positions and a little more than 40% of leadership and management. Childcare is universally available and
of excellent quality. Family stress
is reduced as both women and men get generous leave on the arrival of a new
baby or adoption and family leave to deal with emergencies. An excellent national healthcare system covers the full spectrum reproductive health services. Women outnumber men as university students, including those
pursuing advanced degrees—very important in one of the most highly educated
societies on Earth. In politics, 44%
of Althing seats are held by women and women have a majority of portfolios in the Cabinet and head many important departments.
if things do not continue to improve or if, as an Icelandic proverb has it “the snows fill up the footprints”
and thing back slide again, well, women are always ready for another Day Off.